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英语句子的种类
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感叹句

    感叹句用来表示说话时的一种较为强烈的感情,如:喜悦、赞叹、惊异、愤怒、厌恶等。句末用感叹句号,读时多用降调。

1. 用how引导的感叹句,其句式为:

    a)How +形容词+主语+谓语。例:

    How clever you are!

    你多聪明呀!

    How fast the train is!

    这火车多快呀!

    How hot the weather is!

    天气真热呀!

   b)How+形容词+a(n)+单数名词+主语+谓语。例:

    How pretty a girl she is!

    这女孩多漂亮呀!

    How interesting a book this is!

    这书多有趣啊!

    c)How+副词+主语+谓语。例:

    How fast the train is moving!

    这列车开得多快呀!

    How happily the children are playing!

    这些孩子玩得多开心啊!

   How well she sings!

    她唱得多好啊!

    d)How +主语+谓语。例:

    How it blows!

    风刮得多猛呀!

    How time flies!

    时间过得多快呀!

    注:(1)how与其后的副词或形容词构成短语,在句中充当状语或表语,因此,how与其后的副词、形容词不可分开。当后面的谓语动词是系词,how+形容词;当后面的谓语动词是行为动词,how+副词。例:

    How fine he looks!

    他看起来气色多好呀!

    How carefully he is looking at the blackboard!

    他在多么细心地看黑板呀!

    How happy he feels!

    他感觉多开心呀!

    How happily he plays!

    他玩得多开心呀!

    (2)how构成的感叹句中的谓语不用否定形式。例:

    How unwise you are to go there alone!

你多不明智,一个人去那!

不可以说How wise you are not…!

    (3)“How +形容词”后不能跟复数名词,即不能说:

    How pretty dolls you have!

    可以用what,即:

    What pretty dolls you have!

    你的玩具多可爱呀!

    (4)表意清楚时,“How+副词+主语+谓语”中的副词可以省去。例:

    How (fast)the boy ran!

    这男孩跑得多快啊!

    How (hard)the wind blows!

    风刮得真大!

2. What 引导的感叹句。其句式为:

    a)What +形容词+不可数名词+主语+谓语 例:

    What good news it is!

    多好的消息啊!

    What fine weather it is!

    多好的天气呀!

    What hard work it is!

    多艰苦的工作!

    b)What +a(n)+形容词+单数名词+主语+谓语。例:

    What an interesting book it is!

    这本书多有趣呀!

    What a good boy he is!

    多好的一个孩子啊!

    c)What +形容词+复数名词+主语+谓语。例:

    What beautiful flowers these are!

    多美的花啊!

    What big rooms they are!

    多大的房间呀!

    What tall buildings these are!

    多高的楼呀!

    注:

    (1)这种感叹句的主语和谓语常省略。例:

    What old books! 多旧的书!

    What a tall man! 多高的人!

    What bad weather! 多坏的天气!

    (2)有时what和how构成的感叹句表达的意思相同可以互换,但结构不同。例:

    What good news it is!

    多好的消息!

    How good the news is!

    What foolish men they are!

    多愚蠢的人!

    How foolish the men are!

四. 祈使句

    祈使句主要用来表达请求、命令、建议、叮嘱或祝愿等。祈使句通常省略主语(you),但为了加强语气有时可以加上主语you或增加称呼。例:

    You be quick!

    你快点吧!

    Be quiet, girls!

    姑娘们,安静点儿!

    Have a good trip!

    (祝你)旅行愉快!

1. 句式

a)行为动词开头的祈使句。例:

    Sit down. 坐下吧!

    Come in. 进来!

    Speaking loudly.

    大点声说!

    b)Be开头的祈使句,后常加形容词(系词开头)

    Be careful! 当心!

    Be quick! 快点!

    Be quiet! 安静点!

    Keep silent! 安静!

    c)Let…开头的祈使句

    Let me carry the box for you.

    让我替你拿这只箱子吧!

    Let the boy go home.

    让这个男孩回家。

    Let the teacher in first.

    让老师先进去。

    Let’s+动词原形表建议,让我们…。例:

    Let’s go fishing this Sunday.

    让我们这个礼拜日去钓鱼。

    Let’s have a rest.

    让我们休息一会。

    Let’s stay here.

    让我们留下来吧!

    Let’s = Let us.   Let us 不同语境有不同的含义。

    Let’s “请让我们(咱们…),包括谈话的对方。”例:

    Let’s go out and play football.

    咱们出去踢足球吧!

    Let’s have a rest!

    咱们休息一会吧!

    Let us 意为“请让我们……”表示希望得到对方允许,不包括对方。

    Let us buy you a drink.

    给你买杯饮料吧!

    Let us go. (Don’t stop us going.)

    请让我们走吧!

2. 祈使句的否定式,在句首加don’t,常用缩略式。例:

    Don’t be late for school.

    上学别迟到。

    Don’t be in such a hurry.

    别那么忙。

    Don’t run so fast.

    别跑那么快。

    Let’s 的否定式可以有两种:Let’s not +动词原形或Don’t let’s +动词原形。例:

    Let’s not think about it.

    我们别想这事了。

    Don’t let’s think about it.

    Let’s not have a rest.

    我们别休息了。

    Don’t let’s have a rest.

3. 祈使句的反意问句

    以行为动词或系词be或keep开头的祈使句,如果是肯定形式,后加will you 或won’t you 构成。例:

    Listen to me carefully, will you (won’t you)?

    Pass me the book, will you (won’t you)?

    如果祈使句是否定形式,常用will you. 例:

    Don’t speak so fast, will you?

    别说那么快,好吗?

    Don’t lie on the grass, will you?

    别躺在草地上,好吗?

    Let’s构成的祈使句,包括谈话双方,用shall we 构成。

    Let’s go for a walk, shall we?

    让我们出去散步,好吗?

    Let’s walk there, shall we?

    让我们走着去那,好吗?

    Let us 构成的祈使句,不包括对方,请求对方允许,用will you 构成。例:

    Let us go there now, will you?

    让我们去那儿吧,好吗?

    Let us copy the text, will you?

    让我们抄课文吧,好吗?

    注:(1)祈使句中常加do或always来加强肯定的语气,用never来加强否定的语气。例:

    Do be quiet a moment.

    务请安静一会儿。

    Always remember all your father has said, and be a good boy.

    要永远记住你爸爸的话,做一个好孩子。

    Never trouble trouble till trouble troubles you.

    麻烦不来找你,千万别去找麻烦。

    Never speak like that again.

    千万别再那样说话。

    (2)祈使句中常加上please,表示礼貌,更客气。please可以放句首,也可以放句尾。放句末时要用逗号分开。例:

    Please open the door. =Open the door, please.

    请打开门。

    Please don’t forget the meeting. (Don’t forget the meeting, please.)

    请别忘记开会。

【模拟试题】(答题时间:40分钟)

一. 选择填空:

1. You have never been to London, ______?

    A. don’t you          B. do you              C. haven’t you              D. have you

2. He told you nothing about our business, _______?

    A. did he        B. didn’t he            C. doesn’t he

3. There is going to be an English evening tomorrow, _______?

    A. isn’t there          B. is there              C. isn’t it        D. is it

4. You’ve read many books, _______ you?

    A. didn’t         B. don’t          C. haven’t             D. aren’t

5. He’s just come back, ______?

    A. hasn’t he           B. isn’t he              C. is he          D. has he

6. He could hardly believe what you said, ________?

    A. can’t he            B. can he        C. could he            D. couldn’t he

二. 把下列句子改成反意疑问句

1. The Young Pioneers are planting trees in the garden, _________?

2. He is going to visit the bridge tomorrow, _________?

3. His sister was the first to join the Party (入党)in her class, _________?

4. He seldom went to see his friend, _________?

5. Your sister can speak little English, _________?

6. They had a meeting yesterday, _________?

7. Let’s go out and play, _________?

8. Let us go home now, _________?

9. Don’t go out, _________?

10. Close the door, _________?

三. 句型转换

1. Mr King has to take exercise every morning. (改为一般疑问句)

    _____ Mr King ______ to take exercise every morning?

2. My kite is broken. (对划线部分提问)

    _____ ______ with your kite?

3. Will the most popular singers come to Liaocheng on May Day? My aunt asked. (合并成含有宾语从句的复合句)

    My aunt asked ______ the most popular singers _______ come to Liaocheng on May Day?

4. Alice does the shopping on Sundays. (改为否定句)

    Alice _____ ______ the shopping on Sundays.

5. He spent a whole morning cleaning the room. (对划线部分提问)

     _______ ______ _____ he _______cleaning the room?

6. Mr Hu taught her maths last year. (改为一般疑问句)

    ____ Mr Hu _____ her maths last year?

7. His friend has already posted the photos. (改为否定句)

    His friend ______ posted the photos _______.

8. There is little water in the bottle. (改为反意疑问句)

    There is little water in the bottle, ______?

9. Jim has stayed in China for five years. (对划线部分提问)

    ____ ______ has Jim stayed in China?

10. Where does he live? I don’t know. (改为宾语从句)

    I don’t know _____ _____ ______.

11. Mary did very well in her English exam. (改为一般疑问句)

    _____ Mary ______ very well in her English exam?

12. They have a class meeting once a week. (对划线部分提问)

    ____ _____do they have a class meeting?

13. You like living in Beijing. (改为反意疑问句)

    You like living in Beijing, _____ ______?

14. It is a big library. (改为感叹句)

    _____ _______ big library it is!

15. They are having a good time. (改为感叹句)

    _____ ______ ______ ______ they are having!

四. 单项选择:

(    )1. Lucy went to see the film yesterday. So ______.

    A. did Kate            B. went Kate          C. Kate went

(    )2. ______ bad the weather is today!

    A. What         B. How          C. What a              D. How a

(    )3. He can swim in the river, and ______.

    A. so do I             B. so am I             C. so can I            D. I do, too

(    )4. John began to study French last Sunday.

    A. His brother did so.                   B. So did his brother.

    C. So his brother did.                   D. His brother so did.

(    )5. _____ clever girl your daughter is!

    A. What         B. What   a      C. How          D. How a

(    )6. -______ hot the weather is!

    -Yes, but it will be cool at night.

    A. What         B. How          C. What a              D. How a

(    )7. _____ interesting story it is!

    A. How          B. How an             C. What a              D. What an

(    )8. “________!”called Mr Black when he heard the knock at his door.

    A. Come on           B. Come in            C. Come back        D. Come down

(    )9. _______ you pass me a pen? I’d like to write down the telephone number.

    A. Need          B. Could         C. Must          D. Should

(    )10. ____ call me MiMi! It’s my cat’s name.

    A. Not            B. Didn’t        C. Doesn’t             D. Don’t

【试题答案】

一. 1-6 DAACAC

二. 1. aren’t they           2. isn’t he              3. wasn’t she

4. did he                   5. can she              6. didn’t they

7. shall we                8. will you      9. will you

10. will you (won’t you)

三.

1. Does…have           2. What’s wrong           3. if…would

4. doesn’t do             5. How long did…spend        6. Did…teach

7. hasn’t…yet           8. is there              9. How long           10. Where he lives

11. Did…do                     12. How often        13. don’t you

14. What a                15. What a good time

四. 1-5 ABCBC           6-10 BDBBD

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